Coal, as the world's primary source of energy production and a crucial raw material for steel and cement manufacturing, has gained prominence in recent years due to its association with carbon dioxide emissions, climate change, and the global energy transition. The year 2022 marked a significant turning point for the global coal industry. Coal production reached an unprecedented 8.3 billion tons, with an equally remarkable consumption of 8 billion tons, reflecting the industry's enormous scale. Heightened geopolitical tensions amplified concerns over energy security, leading to a substantial surge in both production and consumption of thermal coal. Even in Europe, a region at the forefront of climate change initiatives, thermal coal consumption saw a surprising 6.8 percent increase, accompanied by a roughly 30 percent rise in imports. Meanwhile, China, the world's largest coal consumer, experienced a robust post-Covid economic recovery, further boosting its coal consumption and imports.
Монгол Улсын эдийн засгийн нүүрсний олборлолт, экспортоос ихээхэн хамааралтай байдал 2022 онд улам гүнзгийрэв. Нүүрсний экспортын биет хэмжээ 31.8 сая тонн, орлого 6.5 тэрбум ам.доллар болж огцом нэмэгдэв. Нүүрсний экспорт анх удаа Монгол Улсын нийт экспортын 51.8 хувийг бүрдүүллээ. 2023 оны I улиралд 14.1 сая тонн нүүрс экспортолж, 2,269 сая ам.долларын орлого олсон нь Ковидын өмнөх буюу 2019 оны орлоготой дүйцэж байна. Өнгөрсөн оны мөн үеэс орлого нь 3.3 дахин, хэмжээ 5.6 дахин өсжээ. Нийт экспортын 60.3 хувийг бүрдүүлсэн нь урьд хожид байгаагүй үзүүлэлт юм.
The income contributed to the state budget from coal is projected to increase by approximately 700 billion MNT during the first quarter of the year, with expectations of reaching 1.5 trillion MNT by the year's end. In 2022, the coal sector alone accounted for 50 percent of the total taxes paid by the mining industry and generated 51 percent of the AMNAT revenue, highlighting its significant financial impact. The issue of AMNAT (presumably a type of tax or revenue) presents a substantial challenge to the coal industry, as the disparity between the reference price and companies' sales prices sharply escalated in 2022. Companies are advocating for an updated coal classification system and conducting coal trading through an exchange as potential solutions. In 2022, the coal sector contributed 1.3 trillion MNT to AMNAT, representing 51 percent of the AMNAT paid by the mining industry as a whole.
Mongolia's coal exports have historically comprised mainly coking and low-coking coal; however, there has been a notable increase in the export of power coal in recent years. This shift is attributed to several key factors, including the Government's "Port Revival" policy, which has led to the expansion and capacity enhancement of major ports along the China-Mongolia border, as well as the long-awaited commissioning of new railways. These initiatives have played a crucial role in supporting coal exports and reducing transportation costs.
In a significant development in 2023, Mongolia began exporting energy coal through the Khavirga port for the first time. In 2022, the country exported a total of 4.3 million tons of thermal coal, constituting 16 percent of its total exports. This diversification in coal exports reflects the industry's adaptability and the growing demand for different coal types in international markets.
"Erdenes Tavantolgoi" and "Energy Resources" have emerged as prominent leaders among the companies that have achieved the highest sales since Mongolia initiated coal exports. Since the inception of coal exporting companies in the country, the cumulative sales revenue has surpassed an impressive 45.2 trillion MNT. Notably, the largest exporter, "Erdenes Tavantolgoi," has recorded sales exceeding 12.8 billion MNT, while "Energy Resources," Mongolia's pioneer in washed coal exports, has achieved sales of 10.2 billion MNT, solidifying their positions as industry frontrunners.